Evaluation Tools

There is a variety of art-based assessments that are used clinically and in research. Some of these assessments are listed below. Please be aware that these assessments should be administered only by art therapists or professionals who have received specific education in how to administer them. For information on training in each assessment, please refer to the contact name provided.

The Research Committee is seeking information about published and unpublished studies (Paper Presentations, Masters' theses, Doctoral Dissertations) on all the instruments currently in use or being developed. Please contact Donna Kaiser if you have information you would like to contribute.


Art therapist educators, practitioners, researchers, students and others will find the Art Therapy to be an invaluable tool in their work.


Please click here to view The Arrington Visual Preference Test (AVPT)

BELIEF ART THERAPY ASSESSMENT (BATA)

Horovitz, E.G. (2002). Rochester, NY: Julia Production, 6-minute film: Designed by Dr. Ellen Horovitz, allows the viewer to glean an understanding of how to conduct the BATA both as an administrant and clinician. The videos take the guesswork out of what materials to use and how to work with thus projective assessment battery. Approximately 6 minutes in length. Available in CD-ROM or VHS - $35 (US)

To order: send check or money order made out to Dr. Ellen Horovitz. Please add $3.00 for shipping and handling. New York State residents add 8% sales tax. Allow two weeks for delivery.
Mail to: Dr. Ellen G. Horovitz, ATR-BC, c/o Julia Productions, 28 Laureldale Drive, Pittsford, NY USA 14534

COGNITIVE ART THERAPY ASSESSMENT (CATA)

Horovitz, E.G. (2002). Rochester, NY: Julia Production, 6-minute film: Designed by Dr. Ellen Horovitz, allows the viewer to glean an understanding of how to conduct the BATA both as an administrant and clinician. The videos take the guesswork out of what materials to use and how to work with thus projective assessment battery. Approximately 6 minutes in length. Available in CD-ROM or VHS - $35 (US)

To order: send check or money order made out to Dr. Ellen Horovitz. Please add $3.00 for shipping and handling. New York State residents add 8% sales tax. Allow two weeks for delivery.
Mail to: Dr. Ellen G. Horovitz, ATR-BC, c/o Julia Productions, 28 Laureldale Drive, Pittsford, NY USA 14534

THE DIAGNOSTIC DRAWING SERIES (DDS)

For information regarding the Diagnostic Drawing Series (DDS) and current research visit www.diagnosticdrawingseries.com

For information regarding upcoming trainings, visit www.diagnosticdrawingseries.info/
Facebook: Diagnostic Drawing Series

For other questions and requests for digital packets and training, contact Barry M. Cohen, ATR-BC, at landmarc@cox.net.

Clinician/Researcher's Packet - Digital Version: $20.
Includes: Handbook, Drawing Inquiry, Rating Guide, Resource List, Style Guide, How to write up an evaluation, researcher number, Master List, sample release form, and Drawing Analysis Form. Basic (single page) DDS instructions in Arabic, Dutch, French, German, Japanese, and Spanish available upon request; other language translations sought. Your packet order helps defray costs, including maintaining the DDS Archive and offering the annual DDS Research Award.

The DDS Archives is housed in the metropolitan Washington, DC area, and is available by appointment to students and professionals seeking to do research and/or publish papers involving the DDS. The DDS Research Award ($300) is made annually in October, pending qualified submissions. DDS supervision, in person or online, is also available. For further information, contact Barry M. Cohen ( landmarc@cox.net).

THE SILVER DRAWING TEST AND DRAW A STORY (SDT and DAS)

For information regarding the SDT and DAS, contact Rawley Silver, Ed.D., ATR-BC, HLM. rawled@aol.com or www.rawleysilver.com.

A new book, Identifying Risks for Aggression and Depression Through Metaphors, published in 2010, proposes that responses to the Drawing from Imagination task in the DAS and SDT assessments tend to be metaphors that can serve as a first step in identifying children, adolescents, and adults at risk for harming others or themselves. Respondents tend to perceive the same stimulus-drawings differently. They also tend to represent the subjects they choose as metaphors for themselves and others. Responses are assessed for their emotional content and self-images, and if they suggest humorous intent, their use of humor, using rating scales that range from strongly negative, such as suicidal or homicidal fantasies, scored 1 point; to strongly positive, such as caring relationships or playful humor (5 points). This book also reviews previous studies of reliability and validity, procedures, and findings. It includes scored examples of metaphorical responses, as well as rating scales and a sample test booklet. $25.00

ISBN: 0-9633740-28 Purple Finch Press 109 Warwick Rd, Dewitt, NY. 13214 Phone (315) 445 8087 or email nbenson@twcny.rr.com

The Silver Drawing Test and Draw a Story, Assessing Depression, Aggression, and Cognitive Skills, published in 2007 by Routledge, N.Y.and Taylor & Francis, U.K.is the 5th edition of the SDT, and the 4th edition of DAS. These evaluation tools use stimulus drawings to elicit responses that provide access to thoughts, feelings, and fantasies. They are also used as pre- and post-tests to assess changes in emotional states and cognitive skills. This book includes quantitative and qualitative findings including reliability and validity, normative data, developmental techniques, outcome studies, responses by children, adolescents, and adults in clinical and non-clinical settings, and the use of these assessments by practitioners in the USA, as well as Russia, Thailand, Brazil, Australia, and Turkey. The Appendices include testing materials and scoring forms for personal use.

The SDT uses Predictive Drawing and Drawing from Observation to assess concepts of space and sequential order, as well as Drawing from Imagination to assess concepts of class inclusion, the three concepts said to be fundamental in mathematics, reading, and everyday life (Piaget). DAS includes techniques to screen for masked depression and reactive or predatory aggression that may lead to violence in schools and suicide among students.

THE FACE STIMULUS ASSESSMENT (FSA)

For information regarding the FSA and current research visit www.art-therapy.us/FSA.htm.

The FSA was developed from 1998-2000 and was presented at the 31st Annual AATA conference in Albuquerque, NM, November 2001, as a paper entitled: "Projective Drawing Research: Assessing the Abilities of Children and Adolescents with Multiple Disabilities."

The FSA needs to be tested for reliability and validity, and a rating scale has yet to be developed, so art therapists are encouraged to conduct research on this assessment tool.

Although the tool was originally designed for use with clients who have communication disorders and are non-verbal, it is also applicable for use with clients of all age groups and cultural backgrounds. Clinician's Packet: $20. Includes: Assessment Templates (Adobe PDF file), FSA Administration & Rating Guidelines, Reference List.

Researcher's Packet: $20. Includes: Assessment Templates (Adobe PDF file), FSA Administration & Rating Guidelines, Reference List, researcher number, sample informed consent form.
Please send orders to: Donna Betts, 728 Beard Street, Tallahassee, FL 32303. The packet is sent via email.

Reference: Betts, D. J. (2003). Developing a projective drawing test: Experiences with the Face Stimulus Assessment (FSA). Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association, 20(2), 77-82.

THE LEVICK EMOTIONAL AND COGNITIVE ART THERAPY ASSESSMENT (LECATA)

For information regarding the LECATA and current research, contact: Myra F. Levick, PhD, ATR-BC, HLM, 21675 Cypress Rd. 15G, Boca Raton, FL 33433, (561) 487-3588, Web site: http://www.childrenatrisk.biz

The LECATA was developed in 1986 at the request of Janet Bush, then Director of the Miami-Dade Clinical Art Therapy Program for Exceptional Children. It is based on the original work described in Myra Levick's text, They could not talk and so they drew: Children's styles of coping and thinking and was copyrighted in 1989.

The LECATA has been revised twice, most recently in 2000. In 1998, Dr. Levick's research proposal to norm the test was accepted in the School District of Palm Beach County.
Upon completion of the data analysis the Levick Emotional and Cognitive Art Therapy Assessment: A normative study was submitted for publication. AuthorHouse published this work in 2009 and it can be obtained from the publisher, www.amazon.com and Barnes & Noble.

Summary of Study:
In developing this normative study, two hypotheses were stated:
Null Hypothesis 1: There will be no statistically significant difference between the chronological age and the age performance in the cognitive and emotional domains overall and on each task.

The 2 tailed T-test, which assumes the two samples have been drawn from the same population, was utilized to test this hypothesis.

Hypothesis 2: There will be a statistically significant relationship between the chronological age and the age performance in the cognitive and emotional domains overall and on each task.

The Pearson r (2 tailed) was utilized to test this hypothesis.

In reviewing the data analysis and the results of these two statistical tests for each age group, it is apparent that neither hypothesis was proven consistently and there are a number of surprises along the way.

Conclusions:
The two hypotheses stated above were proven statistically only sporadically in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 5th grade populations. However, more often than not, throughout much of the data, the mean scores for all tasks, with the exception of task #3, fell within 1 year on the half year perimeters defined in the LECATA. The first question to arise is the structure of the LECATA one that provides accurate data based on a normative study? The documented use of the utilization of this instrument for over more than 2 decades in the Miami-Dade School District and throughout the country has demonstrated that this is a valuable assessment in identifying levels of emotional and cognitive development with a wide range of impaired child and adult populations. The data provided in this assessment has also been demonstrated to serve as a viable basis for establishing treatment goals and documenting progress. All of the children in this study have been identified as normal according to criteria established by the Palm Beach County School District. This criteria provides concurrent validity for the significant results in this project.

The next question to be asked is the data from this normative study consistent with the literature identifying normal and cognitive development? As stated above the LECATA is based on the theoretical constructs of Piaget, Lowenfeld, A. Freud, Kellogg. (see Chapter 1)

After meetings and discussions with professionals educating our children I believe that perhaps we are seeing a new norm. And the suggested basis or causes for these new norms were defined by every group I met to be emanating from the growing divorce rate over the past twenty years and, what we have come to call, the latch key child. This child being one whose parents are either both working, separated or divorced, and comes home to an empty house after school. Surfing the internet on these two subjects is overwhelming and this work cannot begin to list the number of references discussing the impact of these two grave changes in our society. I found that there are services listed to check that Latch key Children are safe: articles on the number of children that are in libraries alone after school; impact of divorce on young children and adolescents. I believe one must also consider the impact the media, I pods and computers and computer games have on traditional

THE PERSON PICKING AN APPLE FROM A TREE (PPAT) ASSESSMENT

For information regarding the PPAT, contact: Linda Gantt, PhD, ATR-BC

PPAT Rating Manual: The Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS) copyright 1997by Linda Gantt, PhD, ATR-BC, & Carmello Tabone, MA, ATR

The FEATS scales rate on 14 different pictorial elements of the PPAT.
Also available: teaching cards, trauma treatment manual, video. contact Gargoyle Press

THE ULMAN PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT PROCEDURE (UPAP)

For information regarding the UPAP and requests for training, contact: Dr. Gladys Agell, ATR-BC

ART THERAPY ASSESSMENT RATING MANUALS

This is a list of literature (published and unpublished) on the research that has been conducted (reliability & validity studies, normative studies, etc.) to further validate/study art therapy assessment rating manuals.

The Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS)

Original sources:
Gantt, L. (1990). A validity study of the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS) for diagnostic information in patients' drawings. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.
Gantt, L. (1993). Correlation of psychiatric diagnosis and formal elements in art work (chapter 16). In F. Bejjani (Ed.), Current research in arts medicine. Pennington, NJ: A Cappella Books.
Gantt, L., & Tabone, C. (1998). The Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale: The Rating Manual. Morgantown, WV: Gargoyle Press